Fibrosis is the accumulation of extracellular matrix components in organs or tissues, changing their structure and leading to a disruption of normal function.

Fibrosis can occur in almost any organ or tissue and is associated with a wide variety of diseases and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality.

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), scleroderma and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are examples of fibrotic disease in the liver, skin and lung respectively for which there is little or no current treatment.

Recently, oxidative stress and ROS have been implicated in the common pathways associated with fibrosis and NOX4 is believed to be particularly important in the development of fibrotic diseases.